In the face of recent military defeats, the Islamic State must try to frame their losses as wins. To do so, Burka Kadercan argues, they will turn to Islamic history, using Muslim territoriality and the Hijrah, to reframe the current state of their group in a context that recalls the days of Mohammed. The losses can be explained as tests from God, that are temporary, in order to regain (and maintain) the trust and adherence of IS’s followers.

To read more on IS’s territoriality, and the ongoing project of legitimization, click here!